International scientific and technical cooperation
«Democracy and Law» magazine, № 2 2015 ý.
INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION: PROGRAMME LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND TYPES
Govher GELDIYEVA, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Law of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan, PhD in Political Science
Gulshat DURDIYEVA,PhD Candidate of the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan
Large-scale reforms being carried out under the leadership of President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov in order to introduce technology, innovations and scientific achievements in all spheres of the national economy are accompanied by the expansion of not only political and economic international relations, but also the development of scientific and technical ties with foreign countries, leading industrial and scientific centers. There has been the internationalization of research, the exchange of scientific knowledge and technology. Work aimed to improve the skills of scientific personnel is also underway. The enhancement of international scientific and technological partnership in terms of deployment of innovative activity in the country is an objective necessity, a result of international division of labor and scientific progress, in the process of which new forms of production and scientific relations must be created.
The importance of the development of industrial as well as scientific and technical cooperation as its component was proclaimed at the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe held in Helsinki in 1973 with the participation of 33 countries. The legal safeguard of international relations in this sphere of Turkmenistan, the main principles and provisions of interaction are enshrined in the national legislation; areas of activities and plans for implementation are defined in the political and policy documents; forms and types are developed in the international treaties of Turkmenistan.
The international scientific and technical cooperation is the joint development of scientific and technical issues, the mutual exchange of scientific achievements, the experience and training of highly qualified specialists. Noting the importance of intensifying cooperation in this area with other countries in the context of further development and modernization of the scientific sphere and innovative development, the President of Turkmenistan stresses: «The past, present and future of our science are integrally connected with political, economic and cultural development of Turkmenistan. According to the Programme of the President of Turkmenistan for the social and economic development of the country, the scientific branch as defining the economic development of the country, the condition and happy future of the people must enter scientific space of the world».
The goals of long term public policy in the field of international and scientific technological cooperation are defined in the «National Programme for the socio-economic development of Turkmenistan for
«The programme for the development of innovative activities in Turkmenistan for
International cooperation in the field of science is aimed at solving theoretical and experimental problems of fundamental and applied science, promoting the development of technological processes, training staff, safeguarding the use of scientific and technological progress.
Today, thanks to the care of the National Leader in this area, a solid legal framework contributing to the establishment and development of international contracts has been created. It includes the Law of Turkmenistan «On the State Science and Technological Policy,» «On the Status of a Scientist,» «On Scientific Organizations,» «On Innovative Activities,» «On Science and Technology Park,» «On Scientific Intellectual Property» and other normative documents that define principles, areas, conditions for financing, tax support, forms and types of cooperation with foreign research centers, scientists and inventors.
The Law of Turkmenistan «On the State Science and Technological Policy» establishes provisions for recognition and establishment of equivalence of documents of foreign states on scientific degrees and academic status in Turkmenistan.
International cooperation is carried out on the basis of intergovernmental and interdepartmental agreements on scientific and technical cooperation, into which along with the rights and obligations of the parties, concrete types of activities are included. Turkmenistan has signed agreements on scientific-technical cooperation with more than 30 countries. Just in the first half of 2015 eight agreements of different levels in this area were signed. The vector direction of international cooperation has the widest range which includes CIS countries and the European Union, Japan, China, India, Turkey, South Korea, Iran, UAE, Saudi Arabia.
This is exemplified by the Agreement between the Government of Turkmenistan and the Government of the Republic of Korea on scientific and technological cooperation, an Agreement between the Government of Turkmenistan and the Government of Republic of Belarus on cooperation in the field of science and technology, an Agreement between the Government of Turkmenistan and the Government of Armenia on scientific and technical cooperation and others. Together with agreements on the cooperation of general character, intergovernmental agreements on specific areas of partnership have been concluded. Among them an Agreement between the Government of Turkmenistan and the Government of Armenia on cooperation in the field of seismic protection should be mentioned.
Interdepartmental agreements have been concluded between scientific institutions of different levels. Agreements of the Academy of Sciences of the country include an agreement on the cooperation of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus, the National Academy of Ukraine and others. The list also includes such documents as an Agreement on scientific cooperation between the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan and the State Scientific Institution called the Institute of History of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus, an Agreement between the Institute of Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan with the Institute of Chemistry of New Materials of the Republic of Belarus, an Agreement on scientific and technological cooperation between the Institute of Physics of the Earth named after Schmidt O.Y. of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Seismology and Physics of the Atmosphere of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan and others.
A special kind of agreements includes programmes for scientific and technical cooperation. This is relatively new form of cooperation and partnership in the field of science and technology. Standards set forth in these treaties are for the future. They also set the parameters of conduct in the field of using achievements in this area, thus fulfilling the role of the international planning of productive relations in this sphere. The programmes, as a rule, define priority areas of cooperation and main stages of implementation. Moreover, a number of specific projects can be included into them. Hence, at present, the Programme of the Government of Turkmenistan and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran for
It is important to note that the participation of the scientific organizations and Turkmen scientists in joint and regional scientific projects as well as in international conferences and events held abroad, working meetings and consultations, internships in foreign research centers, etc. As a striking example we can note that a regional project of the European Union «Central Asian Scientific and Education Network» (CAREN) has been carried out since 2010. Within the framework of this project the Turkmen research and education network providing high-speed Internet access in scientific and educational institutions of the country has been created.
In order to establish direct contacts with a view to improve the system of observation, analysis and processing of seismic data and by taking into account world trends in this area, the joint scientific workshop of seismologists of Turkmenistan and the National Center for Meteorology and Seismology of the United Arab Emirates was organized in Ashgabat.
International cooperation is conducted for the preparation and training of scientific personnel. In accordance with the Agreement between the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus on scientific and technical cooperation, young scientists of the Technology Centre have been trained at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology of Belarus. Currently, within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan and the Japanese-Turkmen Association for Scientific and Technological Cooperation, training in leading universities, scientific and technological centers was organized for 13 young professionals of the Technology Centre.
In the period from 2014 to June 2015, 79 scientists of the Academy of Sciences were abroad to participate in scientific conferences and seminars. Foreign scientists, in turn, are involved in international scientific activities of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan. For example, just in 2014, two hundred scientists from fifty six countries attended the celebration of the opening of the Technology Centre of the Academy of Sciences.
International scientific cooperation makes great contribution to the participation of Turkmenistan in the global integration processes in the sphere of science, technology, high-tech industry, the countrys transition to an innovative path of development, the entry of our country into the market of intellectual products, the increase of scientific potential and the ensuring of technological security.
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